TETHOK | Textile Tectonics for Wood Construction
Wood becomes textile
The research network TETHOK | Textile Tectonics for Wood Construction has been developing a wood-based continuous fiber (solid-wood monofilament) for architecture and construction, and designing textile structural elements to be made from it. We are investigating the processes of designing, building, and manufacturing with textiles made from solid-wood monofilament. Textiles have many advantages: excellent suitability for light construction, versatility of form and function, refined and tested manufacturing and processing technologies, and a characteristic, ever-changing, deeply familiar aesthetic of parallel and crossing threads.
Woven (left) and spatially robotically placed (right) structures made of continuous solid wood fibre
We combine specialized knowledge from various disciplines, which must work extremely closely with one another. Through this interdisciplinary synthesis of architecture, structural engineering, materials science, and mechanical engineering, we are addressing the many challenging questions of design, construction, material properties, simulation, and production raised by the project. Our aim is to combine the advantages of textiles with those of wood by adapting the versatility of textiles and their characteristic construction methods to wooden structures. We are joining knowledge from the millennia-old craft of weaving – which was declared an intangible cultural heritage by the German Commission for UNESCO in 2016 – with today’s digital and industrial technologies and manufacturing processes.
graded structure (left), woven structure (middle), freely designed structure (right)
The basis for our research is a continuous solid wood filament made from willow withes. The great flexibility of willow wood makes it possible to turn solid wood into a continuous fiber, which can then be mechanically processed like yarn to produce a wide variety of textile fabrics. Willow wood is very light and has an exceptionally good ratio of strength to flexibility and weight. Because the natural structure of the wood is not dissolved and spun into a new thread, as with regenerated fibers, its qualities are not destroyed, but rather transferred to the textile via the solid-wood fiber.
The solid wood filament (left) is the basis of textile tectonics for wood construction. The raw material for the solid wood filament are the "thread-like" growing branches - withes - of shrub willows (right).
Wood is one of humanity’s oldest construction materials, with enormous technological, aesthetic, and ecological potential, and yet to our knowledge, a spool-wound wood-based fiber suitable for use in a loom, braider, or other textile-manufacturing machine does not yet exist. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, early artisanal attempts were made in the field of wood-weaving using short wood fibers and drawn wood (Purfürst 1880; Klausegger et al. 2016), and willow withes are known to have been used in making woven baskets and fascines for reinforcing embankments (Verdet-Fierz 2004). But of course, time is money, and today, production must be rapid. In the 1980s, the Forestry Institute of the East German Academy of Agronomic Sciences in Eberswalde attempted to produce continuous fibers from willow for use in looms, but German reunification put an end to those efforts. However, they present a fascinating opportunity to “take up the thread” once more.
The research network TETHOK | Textile Tectonics for Wood Construction are:
Forschungsplattform BAU KUNST ERFINDEN,
Prof. Heike Klussmann | Speaker
Institut für Werkstofftechnik/Kunststofftechnik,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans-Peter Heim
FG Experimentelles und Digitales Konstruieren und Entwerfen,
Prof. Philipp Eversmann
FG Trennende und Fügende Fertigungsverfahren,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Prof. h.c. Stefan Böhm
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Detlef Kuhl
FG Bauwerkserhaltung und Holzbau,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Werner Seim
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Julian Lienhard
Dawod, M.; Deetman, A.; Akbar, Z.; Heise, J.; Boehm, S.; Klussmann, H. & Eversmann, P. (2020): Continuous Timber Fibre Placement. In: Gengnagel C., Baverel O., Burry J., Ramsgaard Thomsen M., Weinzierl S. (Hrsg.) Impact: Design With All Senses. DMSB 2019, (460-473). Cham: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29829-6_36
Hofmann, J., von Boyneburgk, C., Tunger, S., Heim, H.-P. & Kuhl, D. (2019). Parameter identification for constitutive models of innovative textile composite materials using digital image correlation. Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 19 (1), 1–2. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1002/pamm.201900416
Hofmann, J., von Boyneburgk, C., Tunger, S., Heim, H.-P. & Kuhl, D. (2019). Parameter identification for constitutive models of textile composite materials using digital image correlation. In: T. Gleim & S. Lange (Hrsg.), Proceedings of the 8th GACM Colloquium on Computational Mechanics For Young Scientists From Academia and Industry (195–198). Kassel: Kassel University Press
Kohl, D.; von Boyneburgk, C.; Feldmann, M.; Heim, H.-P. & Böhm, S. (2020): Characterization of wood-based multi-material systems under dynamic impact stress, Wood Material Science & Engineering, 15 (3), 130–139, doi: 10.1080/17480272.2018.1501605
Kohl, D.; Ratsch, N.; Böhm, S.; Voß, M.; Kaufmann, M.; Vallée, T. (2018): Influence of manufacturing methods and imperfections on the load capacity of glued-in rods. The Journal of Adhesion, 738–759. DOI: 10.1080/00218464.2018.1508351
Kohl, D.; Long, T.H.N.; Böhm, S. (2017): Wood-based Multi-material Systems for Technical Applications. Compatibility of Wood from Emerging and Developing Countries. Procedia Manufacturing, 8, 611–618. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2017.02.078
Lienhard, J., & Eversmann, P. (2020). New hybrids – from textile logics towards tailored material behaviour. Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 1-6. DOI: 10.1080/17452007.2020.1744421
Silbermann, S.; Heise, J.; Kohl, D.; Böhm, S.; Akbar, Z.; Eversmann, P. & Klussmann, H. (2020): Textile Architecture for Wood Construction. In: C. Leopold, C. Robeller & U. Weber (Hrsg.), Research culture in architecture (113-122), Basel: Birkhäuser. ISBN 978-3-0356-2023-8
Silbermann, S.; Böhm, S.; Eversmann, P. & Klussmann, H. (2019). TETHOK: Textile Tectonics for Wood Construction. In: M. Hudert & S. Pfeiffer (Hrsg.), Rethinking Wood. Future Dimensions of Timber Assembly (216-231). Basel: Birkhäuser. DOI: 10.1515/9783035617061
Patent applied for:
Akbar, Z.; Dawod, M.; Deetman, A.; Eversmann, P.; Silbermann, S.; Klussmann, H.; Heise, J.; Kohl, D.; Böhm, S.; “Verfahren zur Herstellung von Bauteilen aus Massivholz, Endlosstrang aus Massivholz für dieses Verfahren und damit hergestelltes Massivholzbauteil,” EP 3 650 184 A1, Germany, 19208029.9, registered on May 13th 2020.
Linked research projects:
FLIGNUM | Endlosfaden aus Massivholz Funded by the Federal Ministery of Food and Agriculture / Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe, 2019-2022
VOTO | Weidengewebeverstärkter Kunsttstoff mit variabler Gewebedichte für Fassadenelemente im textilen Holzbau Funded by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy / AiF / IGF, 2021-2023
Contess 2020 Textile construction and innovative materials, European Textile Academy, Brixen, 25./26.09.2020, Speaker: Steffi Silbermann
Neue Denkerei, Presentations about biobased construction by Technologieland Hessen, Kassel, 26.11.2019, Speaker: Steffi Silbermann
HAUTE INNOVATION Presentations about biobased materials for future constructions, Berlin, 26.11.2019, Speaker: Steffi Silbermann
2. European Exchange Meeting and Seminar for Research and Industry by IVGT & Forschungskuratorium Textil, 15./16.10.2019 Frankfurt a.M., Speaker: Steffi Silbermann
Workshop Kontinuumsmechanik by Universität Kassel, Boglerhaus, 25.09.2019, Speaker: Steffi Silbermann
LIGNA 2019, 30.05.2019, Speaker: Jens Frohnmüller
exhibitions / performances:
Kunstloose Tage Oderbruch, Exhibition of objects, Ortwig, 31.05.-02.06.2019
LIGNA – Making more out of Wood, exhibition of research process, objects and tools, Hannover, 27. - 31. Mai 2019, own stand in hall 11, 64/66.
CROSS THE LINE | Choreography for contemporary dance, Potsdam, June 14th 2019 with interactive textile objects made of willow filament as stage design, Theater Am Neuen Garten 64, Potsdam, Choreography: Jean Marc Lebon, Katelijne Philips-Lebon, Nina Ihlenfeld. stage: BAU KUNST ERFINDEN with students, funded by ZLF of the University of Kassel
BAU 2019 World's leading trade fair for architecture, materials, systems, Jan 14th-19th 2019, TETHOK on the stand of FVHF Expert Portal Rear-Ventilated Facades (hall A2/519) & of DETAIL Research lab (hall B0, stand 204).
ORGATEC 2018 Leitmesse für moderne Arbeitswelten, Cologne, TETHOK presented by Haute Innovation Materials Culture, 10/2018
Subcontracter Show Jonköping 2018, TETHOK presented by Haute Innvoation, 11/2018
form, Designmagazin, Nr. 290, 12/2020, p. 156-163
H.O.M.E. Designmagazin, Mai/Juni 2020, p. 117
Weide als Werkstoff within the TV program ALLES WISSEN, HR Hesse Television & ARD Mediathek, 2019-2020
Hessenschau, HR Hesse Television News, 03.08.2019
Süddeutsche Zeitung, Nr. 172, 27.-28.07.2019, p. 46
DETAIL Magazin, 04/2019, p.16-17
TETHOK | Textile Tectonics for Wood Construction is funded by Programmlinie Zukunft of the University of Kassel (2018-2021).